PREPARÁNDONOS PARA EL ARBITRAJE, PERU

En el ámbito público del Perú, las Partes recurren obligadamente al arbitraje para solucionar sus controversias, excepto (sic) en todo lo que no corresponda a indemnizaciones y adicionales, que se soluciona mediante un Juicio.

Recién la Nueva Ley de Contrataciones del Estado incorpora las Juntas de Resolución de Disputas como medio de Solución de Controversias para la Contratación Pública, tendientes en opinión del columnista, a disminuir arbitrajes innecesarios y costosos, permitiendo que las controversias se resuelvan en la ejecución del contrato, y no evolucionen en arbitrajes…….Sin embargo, el uso de las JRD no es obligatorio, sino facultativo, no hay suficientes peritos neutrales acreditados, y NO soluciona los problemas de las ingenierías insuficientes y pobres definiciones de los Encargos.

El arbitraje es un procedimiento por el cual se somete una controversia -por acuerdo de las partes- a un árbitro que dicta una decisión sobre la controversia, que es obligatoria para las partes. El Arbitro se detiene en la revisión y análisis de los aspectos reclamados por las partes, para lo cual pericia la información que respalda y que responde la controversia, determinando de qué lado está la razón.

Escalar la controversia hasta Arbitraje, obliga a que las pruebas que respaldan el Claim sean sólidas, indestructibles, de modo de evitar que la participación de peritos encuentre fallos en los respaldos y con eso diluyan el Claim.

La preparación para el arbitraje -tal como su nombre lo define, es un proceso que se desarrolla y gestiona antes del arbitraje, exige entre otros, tomar una “radiografía” de la situación del contrato en estudio para lograr determinar los puntos fuertes y débiles de la posición Propia, respecto a la aceptación o negación de los argumentos por aumentos de plazo y costos, que presente en su Claim la Otra Parte, para lo cual se debe reconstruir la historia del contrato en cuestión, neutra y libre de sesgo (Storyboard), y analizar las condiciones en que se encuentra el referido Contrato bajo la Administración propia, para involucrarse en un proceso de Arbitraje, y determinar la probabilidad de no sufrir pérdidas mayores, que las que a la fecha demanda la Solicitud de Compensación (Claim) presentada por la Otra Parte.

Frente a un Arbitraje, quien debe realizar el Storyboard del Contrato?

La mayoría de los Mandantes y Contratistas enfrentados a un Arbitraje, encargan la confección de la historia del contrato, a su propio personal: Parece bien y lógico, verdad?, pero esa historia “no será neutra, ni libre de sesgo”: Que opinión se formará el tribunal arbitral frente a una historia sesgada e imparcial?

Una vez más, la realidad es que los Contratistas y Mandantes deben estar conscientes de la fatuidad “sabemos de Claims” y ser educados acerca de Claims, para proteger la inversión significativa de recursos.

Según la opinión y experiencia del columnista, ha resultado exitoso desarrollar la preparación para el Arbitraje en tres fases:

Fase I, Construcción del Storyboard del Contrato

Construir con juicio experto independiente -gerentes de proyecto/administradores de contratos, profesionales especialistas en Ingenieria, Procura, Construcción/PEM-, la historia neutra libre de sesgo del desarrollo del Contrato, teniendo en consideración que se usará para determinar a través de un análisis situacional, la posición de la Parte al momento de enfrentarse a Arbitraje para resolución de controversias con la Otra Parte, en caso de no lograr acuerdo sobre el Claim, en las etapas previas de Negociación del Conflicto. Esto permite generar una contundente y robusta reportabilidad, respaldando la posición que el Cliente sostendrá durante el arbitraje y la consiguiente Preparación de la Demanda Reconvencional a tener en consideración al momento que el responsable de ese proceso de arbitraje lo requiera.

Téngase presente:

  • la explicación de la controversia, a veces no se encuentra sólo en los procesos de la ejecución del contrato, pudiendo encontrarse en etapas más tempranas, por ejemplo, en la etapa de iniciación o de planificación del contrato en cuestión.
  • la reconstitución de la historia del contrato, generalmente devela impactos de situaciones previsibles que no debieron ser parte de las controversias; que la dotación propia del Mandante es muy reducida (difícilmente puede hace frente a la gran organización del contratista), y que falta contraparte de actividades en terreno.

Fase II: Identificación y Valorización del Claim

Buscar la “verdad” razonable y congruente -con juicio experto independiente- de los trabajos afectados por el Claim, valorizándolos vía medición de las cantidades y estimaciones de costo/aumento de costos o ampliación de plazos, para asignar responsabilidad por atrasos y costos.

Fase III: Definiciones para el Arbitraje

  • Proposición de la Estrategia para el Arbitraje
  • Efectos del Atraso del Contrato en el Proyecto
  • Informe para Contra Demanda, a tener en consideración al momento que el especialista responsable del proceso de arbitraje lo requiera.

(por Antonio Iribarren Catalán, Ingeniero Civil Mecánico, Consultor Senior QDRclaims)

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